Early bag-mask ventilation of asphyxiated non-breathing neonates at birth has reduced neonatal mortality by up to 50% in low- and middle-income countries. The neurodevelopmental outcome of infants in such settings remains unknown. Infants who received ventilation at birth were assessed at 6 months at home, evaluating gross motor, fine motor, language and social skills. A healthy cohort with no birth complications was assessed for comparison. Most children receiving ventilation at birth are developing normally at 6 months. Still, there are some children with impaired development among resuscitated children, representing a subgroup of children who may have suffered more severe asphyxia.